Wheat germination and highly diluted agitated gibberellic acid (10e-30) – a multi researcher study

  • Peter Kiefer Interuniversity College Graz
  • Wolfgang Matzer Interuniversity College Graz
  • Sabine Schiestl Interuniversity College Graz
  • Hagar Hartung Interuniversity College Graz
  • Ingrid Schwärzler Interuniversity College Graz
  • Romana Seunig Interuniversity College Graz
  • Jürgen Hofäcker Interuniversity College Graz
  • Peter Christian Endler Interuniversity College Graz
Keywords: high dilution, homeopathy, fundamental research, wheat germination, gibberellic acid


Grains of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., Capo variety) were observed under the influence of highly diluted gibberellic acid (10-30) prepared by stepwise dilution and agitation according to a protocol derived from homeopathy (“G30xâ€ÂÂ). Adequate control was used (water prepared according to the homeopathic protocol “W30x†and/or untreated water “W0â€ÂÂ). Two sets of multicenter experiments were performed, 4 in 2009-2010 and 4 in 2011, involving altogether 6 researchers, 6 laboratories and 4,000 grains per treatment group. Data were found to be homogeneous within the control groups as well as within the verum groups. When the 2009-2010 experiments were pooled, mean germination rates after 24 hours were (85.9 + 2.6) for the control group and (82.1 + 5.7) for G30x (mean + SD at the level of experiments in %) (N = 2,000 per group). Verum germination rate was 4.4% lower than (i.e. equal to 96.6% of) (4.4 + 96.6 = 101) the control germination rate (100%). The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001) and the effect size (d) is large (> 0.8). Observations at other points in time between 0 and 40 hours of germination yielded similar results. Practically no difference was found between W30x and W0 groups (p > 0.05). When the 2011 experiments were pooled, the mean germination rates after 24 hours were (73 + 12) for the control group and (73 + 14) for G30x (N = 2,000 per group), i.e. there was practically no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). We interpret the data from 2009-2010 on wheat germination within 40 hours as being in line with our previous findings on wheat stalk growth after one week, i.e. as confirmation that gibberellic acid 30x can influence, i.e. slow down, wheat development. Various possible reasons for the absence of any difference between groups in the 2011 experiments, including seasonal variance, are discussed and it is suggested to perform wheat germination experiments in the very beginning of autumn season only.

Author Biography

Peter Christian Endler, Interuniversity College Graz
Director of Interuniversity College Graz
Basic Research (Biology)