Evaluation of the effect of inactivation by microwave and autoclave in homeopathic medicines
Keywords: homeopathy, seed dynamics, microwave, autoclave
AbstractBackground: The Brazilian Pharmacopoeia defines the sterilization process as a "method" intended to remove or destroy all forms of life, animal or plant, macroscopic or microscopic, saprophytic or not, present in the product concerned, without ensuring the complete inactivation of toxins or cellular enzymes. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging between 300MHz (300x106 Hz) and 300 GHz (300x109 Hz) and wavelengths from 1 m to 1 mm. They are waves that lie within the region between TV waves and the infrared region within the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. According to the Technical Standards Textbook for Homeopathic Pharmacy, glass tubes may be reused after washed with running and purified water and inactivated by autoclaving at 120oC for 30 minutes or by a dry air buffer at 180oC for 30 minutes or at 140oC for 1 hour . Aims: Current experiment evaluates the influence of ultra-diluted Sulphur with and without inactivation by autoclaving and microwaving for certain variables in the germination and growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench - cv TX623B). Methodology: Ten milliliters of Sulphur in homeopathic dinamizations (proposed by Hering - DH) 9DH, 18DH and 30DH inactivated by microwave and by autoclave heat, and control with water, were added to petri dishes in which 20 sorghum seeds were distributed. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber (BOD) at 25oC and during a 16-h photoperiod. Double-blind methodology to avoid researcherÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s possible interferences or trends, coupled to statistic treatment at the end of the experiment, was employed. Data underwent variance analysis and means were compared by Scott-KnottÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s test at 5% probability. Results: Homeopathy Sulphur changed the evaluated parameters of 9DH, 18 DH and 30 DH dinamizations when compared to control (water). Differences existed with regard to effects of the different microwave-treated (M9DH, M18DH, M30DH) and autoclaving-treated (A9DH, A18DH, A30DH) dinamizations. Sulphur had no significant difference in the aerial length (CPA) when compared with that of control. In the case of the same homeopathic treatments previously undergoing autoclaving, the three dinamizations had a similar response to CPA. The same occurred with drugs submitted to microwaves. With regard to rootÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s growth (CSR), treatment with Sulphur inhibited growth in the dinamizations 18 DH and 30 DH when compared to control. This did not occur with 9 DH which had the same effect as that of water. In the case of groups treated with medicines 30 DH and 9DH undergoing microwaves, the same effect of water was reported. Consequently, microwaves inactivated the effect of homeopathic medicine. However, in 18DH under the effect of microwaves, the effect of drug 18DH was reported. Consequently, there was growth inhibition but no inactivation by microwaves. In the case of groups treated with autoclaved medicine, a greater root growth was reported. This fact shows that autoclaving altered the homeopathic medicine. In fact, it had an opposite effect when compared to control. On the other hand, when Fresh Root Weight was evaluated, differences in control were reported only for groups treated with autoclaved medicines. These results were similar to those of the group treated with medicine 18DH. An increase in the fresh root weight was reported agreeing with a greater root growth. Results related to the aerial part and to the root of the dry mass failed to show any significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: Results show that different physiological responses are produced posterior to the employment of homeopathic medicine, sometimes stimulating, sometimes inhibiting root growth . The aerial part was not influenced by any treatment. On the other hand, autoclaved medicines stimulated root growth . This fact shows changes in the homeopathic medicine under humid heat. Microwave treatments showed an inactivation for 9DH and 30DH, but not for 18DH. The latter had the same results as those treated with Sulphur 18DH. The above results suggest that microwaves may inactivate homeopathic medicines, albeit not entirely. Therefore, it may not be a reliable inactivation methodology.