Homeopathy emerging as nanomedicine
Keywords: homeopathy, epitaxy, nanoparticle, interfacial water, nanomedicine
AbstractBackground: Homeopathy is a time-tested two-century old empirical system of healing. Homeopathic medicines are prepared through a characteristic process known as potentization, where serial dilutions are performed with strong strokes at each step of dilution. Homeopathy is controversial because most medicines do not contain one single molecule of the corresponding starting-substance. Aim: To investigate a possible nanoscience mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Methodology: Ultra-pure samples were prepared and were examined under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with selected area nanodiffraction (SAD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Also trace element analysis (TEA) for silicon was performed. Results: Homeopathic medicines showed not to be ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‹Å“nothingÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢, but exhibited nanoparticles and conglomerates of them, which had crystalline nature and were rich in silicon. Conclusions: During the violent strokes involved in potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might be encrypted by epitaxy on silicon-rich crystalline nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine. The ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‹Å“sizeÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢ of the information encrypted on nanoparticles might vary together with the degree of dilution. As homeopathic medicines exhibit healing effects, these nanoparticles along with the interfacial water on their surface might carry this information - which biological systems are able to identify - to the target. As various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system, homeopathy might represent a nanomedicine system. Possible confirmation, however, requires further research in materials and interfacial water.
Fundamental Research (Physics and Chemistry)