Evidence in support of gene regulatory hypothesis: Gene expression profiling manifests homeopathy effect as more than placebo

  • Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh UNIVERSITY OF KALYANI
  • Santu Kumar Saha University of Kalyani
  • Sourav Roy University of California, Riverside,
Keywords: Gene regulatory hypothesis, DNA microarray profile, potentized high dilution anticancer remedies


Background: Use of ultra-high diluted remedies in homeopathy and their claimed efficacy in curing diseases has been challenged time and again by non-believers despite many evidence-based positive results published in favor of their efficacy in curing/ameliorating disease symptoms. Aims: To test the ability of ultra-high diluted homeopathic remedies beyond Avogadro’s limit, if any, in manifesting gene modulating effects in controlled in vitro experimental model. Methods: Since cancer cells manifest aberrant epigenetic gene expressions, we conducted global microarray gene expression profiling of HeLa cells (an established epigenetic model of HPV18 positive cell line) treated with two different potentized homeopathic remedies, namely, Condurango 30c and Hydrastis canadensis 30C (used in the treatment of cancer), as compared to that of placebo (succussed alcohol 30c). Results: Data revealed distinctly different expression patterns of over 100 genes as a consequence of treatment with both homeopathc remedies compared to placebo. Conclusion: Results indicate that action of the potentized drugs was “more than placebo†and these ultra-highly diluted drugs acted primarily through modulation of gene expression.

Author Biographies

Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh, UNIVERSITY OF KALYANI
Professor of Zoology, University of Kalyani Kalyani-741235, India
Santu Kumar Saha, University of Kalyani
Research Scholar, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani
Sourav Roy, University of California, Riverside,
Assistant Research Entomologist, Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside
Basic Research (Biology)