An evaluation of Avogadroâ€™s number in the light of HRTEM and EDS studies of high dilutions of Ferrum metallicum 6, 30, 200, 1M, 10M and 50Mc
Keywords: Homeopathy, High dilutions, Ferrum metallicum, Nanoparticles, HRTEM, EDS, Quantum dots, Avogadroâ€™s number
AbstractAs a therapeutic tool high dilutions (HDs) are always at the center of controversies due to problems to validate them as a function of Avogadroâ€™s number. Nevertheless, homeopathy is practiced around the world as a complementary and alternative medicine. The present study sought to evaluate HDs of homeopathic drug Ferrum metallicum (Ferr) 6, 30, 200, 1M, 10Mc and 50Mc, all of which except for 6c surpass Avogadroâ€™s number. Using HRTEM and EDS it was conclusively shown that: 1) all the investigated HDs of Ferr contained plenty of nanoparticles (NPs); 2) the size of NPs were within the quantum dots (QD) size range, except for 50Mc, in which larger particles were found (12.61nm); 3) NPs contained iron in various weight percentages; 4) the weight percentage of iron was highest in HDs 10Mc and 50Mc.
Fundamental Research (Physics and Chemistry)