Diluted versus potentitized probes of silver nitrate (10e-2 to 10e-10) and wheat germination
Keywords: high dilution, homeopathy, wheat, silver nitrate
AbstractCorinne Kraus, Ute Knobloch, Scherer Waltraud, Peter Christian Endler Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz / Castle of Seggau, Austria Background In 1926, an influence of a homeopathically prepared high dilution of silver nitrate on the growth of coleoptiles of wheat seedlings was described (Kolisko 1926). Later, in an extensive series of experiments, wheat was observed under the influence of extremely diluted agitated silver nitrate (10e-23, â€œ24xâ€). Stalk lengths clearly indicate that development is enhanced by the probe silver nitrate 24x as compared to control (Scherer et al. 2015). A preliminary experiment was performed in early autumn 2015 on stalk growth of wheat seedlings treated with (not potentized) dilutions of silver nitrate 10e-6 to 10e-10 (â€œ6e to 10eâ€), compared to potentized silver nitrate 6x to 10x (N = 100 per group). A clear, albeit not statistically significant trend was observed of 6x-stalks being longer (23.4 + 16.2 mm) than 6e-stalks (13.0 + 10.9 mm). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diluted versus potentized low dilutions of silver nitrate (10e-2 to 10e-10) on wheat germination. Method The experiments were performed in late autumn 2015 on wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L., Capo variety). The grains were observed under the influence of aqueous solutions 10-2 to 10-10 part per weight of silver nitrate, either diluted in steps of 1 : 10 in distilled water by mere pipetting (probes â€œ2e â€“ 10eâ€), or diluted and agitated in steps of 1:10 (to create potentized probes â€œ2x â€“ 10xâ€). Untreated distilled water (â€œwâ€) served as an additional control. All probes were applied blindly. 100 grains were observed per treatment group in each of the groups resulting a total of 2,000 grains. Grains were placed in glass dishes, probes were added and dishes were covered with lids and placed in drawers . The following endpoint criteria were defined: K1 = visible emergence of sprout material, K2 = lifting of the operculum and emergence of the sprout and W1 = development of three roots. â€ƒ Result Germination rates K1 of seedlings treated with â€œwâ€-probes (blue), with â€œeâ€-probes ranging from 2e to 10e (black) and with â€œxâ€-probes ranging from 2x to 10x (red) at the measuring points 20h, 24h and 28h (from left to right for each of the probes). In K1, K2 and W, there is an obvious increase of germination rates from the high to the lower concentrations of silver nitrate, both in the â€œeâ€ and in the â€œxâ€-groups and observable at 20h, 24h and 28h (p < 0.01). In contrast, germination rates of the two â€žwâ€œ-probes are practically alike (p > 0,05) When â€œeâ€ and â€œxâ€-data are compared, germination rates are higher under the influence of â€œxâ€ than under the influence of â€œeâ€ (p < 0.01 for the pooled â€œxâ€-values compared to the pooled â€œeâ€-values with regard to K1 as well as K2 as well as W). Conclusion: A significant difference was found between wheat grains treated with mere dilutions compared to grains treated with potentised dilutions. References 1. Endler PC, Belavite P, Bonamin L,JÃ¤ger T, Mazon S. Replication of fundamental research models in ultra high dilutions 1994 and 2015 â€“ update on a bibliometric study. Special issue Homeopathy London. 2015 a Oktober;104(4):234-45. 2. Endler PC, Schulte J, Stock-Schroeer B, Stephen S. Ultra high Dilution 1994 revisited 2015 â€“ the state of follow-up research. Special issue Homeopathy London. 2015 b Oktober;104(4):223-6. 3. Kolisko L. Physiologischer Nachweis der Wirksamkeit kleinster EntitÃ¤ten bei 7 Metallen â€“ Wirkung von Licht und Pflanzen auf das Pflanzenwachstum. Dornach Schweiz: Philosophisch-Anthroposophischer Verlag am Goetheanum; 1926. 4. Kraus C, Knobloch U. Diluted versus diluted and agitated probes of silver nitrate (10-2 to 10-10) and wheat germination, Thesis (MSc); branch campus UCN at Interuniversity College Graz / Schloss Seggau; 2016. 5. Scherer-Pongratz W., Endler P.C., Lothaller H., Stephen S. Wheat and ultra high diluted silver nitrate â€“ further experiments and re-analysis of data. Special issue Homeopathy London. 2015;104(4):246-9.