Highly diluted compounds effects on B16-F10 melanogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and tumorigenesis.
Keywords:melanoma, melanogenesis, oxygen reactive species.
AbstractBackground: Cutaneous melanoma is a highly malignant tumor derived from pigment-producing (melanin) melanocytes of skin epidermis. Cutaneous pigmentation is described as the major physiologic defense against UV radiation. During melanin biosynthesis and other tumorigenic process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and might be critically involved in several melanomagenesis stages. ROS play key roles on regulation of many types cell proliferation, including melanoma cells. Aims: In this work we evaluated the effects of highly diluted compounds on melanogenesis and changes in reactive oxygen species after 96 hours of treatment and possible involvement in tumorigenesis. Methodology: Melanin content was measured in B16-F10 cells after 96 hours of treatment with highly diluted compounds, as well as the superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. Furthermore, the effects of highly diluted compounds on cell proliferation were investigated by trypan blue exclusion method after 48 hours of treatment. Results: Treatment led to an increase in B16-F10 melanin content and a decrease in nitrite concentration, an intermediate product of nitric oxide. We also observed a decrease in cell proliferation after treatment. It is well recognized that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in tumor progression, including melanoma. Several articles show that NO treated B16-F10 cells exhibited higher metastatic capacity. Thereby, reduction in cell proliferation can be due to low NO levels. It is speculated that melanocytes are programmed to survive in order to preserve their photoprotective role, thus in a compensatory manner the cell may be synthesizing melanin in response to cell proliferation reduction. Conclusions: These results suggest that treatment may be reducing tumorigenic capacity via ROS reduction. However further studies are need to better understand highly diluted compounds mechanisms of action.
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