Preliminary study on force-like effects between As45x, water, and wheat seeds performed by means of the droplet evaporation method


  • Maria Olga Kokornaczyk
  • Stephan Baumgartner
  • Lucietta Betti



Droplet evaporation method, ultra-high dilutions, force like effects


Background: The droplet evaporation method (DEM) is based on pattern formation in evaporating droplets. It has been shown that the local connected fractal dimension (LCFD; a complexity measure) of crystalline structures grown in evaporating droplets of wheat seed leakages depended upon whether the seeds were treated with an ultra-high dilution (UHD) or water control.1, 2 In homeopathy it is usually assumed, that UHD’s need to come in direct (physical) contact with the organism to be treated to exhibit their action; however, recently, it has been demonstrated on a wheat seed germination model that UHD’s may influence organisms also at a distance, i.e. without any physical contact. 3 In this case the UHD's effectiveness decreases with increasing distance. Here we test whether DEM might serve also as a tool to study such force-like influences. In a series of three DEM experiments (E1-3) we studied (i) force-like effects occurring between As2O3 45x treatment (As45x) and undiluted, unsuccussed, ultrapure water (W), (ii) As45x and wheat seeds, as also (iii) whether force-like effects may be shielded by means of aluminum foil, commonly applied for such purposes in homeopathic research.

Author Biographies

Maria Olga Kokornaczyk

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy.

Stephan Baumgartner

Society for Cancer Research, Arlesheim, Switzerland.

Lucietta Betti

Institute of Integrative Medicine, University of Witten-Herdecke, Germany




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