Raman spectroscopy reveals distinctive features of drugs at ultra high dilution
AbstractBackground Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Drugs at ultra high dilution (UHD) have been used in homeopathy for a couple of centuries. The central theme in homeopathic Materia Medica is that each drug has its own distinctive features which need to be matched with the symptoms of a patient for eliciting therapeutic response. However, UHDâ€™s very often (above 12 cH) cross the Avogadro number, and are, therefore, devoid of original drug molecules. How do they maintain their individual identity ? This study aims to address this pertinent question. Â Objective : Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The medium of UHDâ€™s is ethanol water. It is thought that water structures in a UHD carry the identity of the drug and its rank of dilution. The objective is to decipher the exact nature of water structure in UHDâ€™s of different drugs by laser Raman spectroscopy. Â Method : Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Six homeopathic drugs and their control ethanol, all in 90% ethanol v/v, were used in the study. ForÂ SulphurÂ andÂ Natrum mur, potencies used were 30 cH, 200 cH and 1000 cH, and forÂ Calcarea carbÂ andÂ SepiaÂ the potencies were 8 cH, 202 cH and 1002 cH. In addition to the four drugs we also used X-ray and Magnetis poli ambo which did not originate from any substance by exposure of ethanol water to X radiation and strong magnetic field.For this we could use their mother tinctures as well as ultrahigh dilutions(potencies) like 8cH, 14cH and 32cH. The potencies used for ethanol control were 8 cH, 14cH, 32cH and 20 cH. Raman spectra of all the potencies of 6 drugs, ethanol control and pure water were taken in the wave number region of 2400-4200 cm-1. All the samples were reduced to 25% ethanol by adding appropriate volume of water to each of them before taking the spectra. The mother tinctures MT of X-ray and Magnetis were studied. The intensity ratio of vibration frequencies between 3200 cm-1Â and 3420 cm-1Â (R1) and that between 3620 cm-1Â and 3420 cm-1Â (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. Â Results : All the UHDâ€™s of the drugs and the control tested show difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups. The three UHDâ€™s from low to high ranks of both Natrum murÂ andÂ SulphurÂ show negative relationship with respect to R1 values, and positive one concerning Â R2 values. R1 values for 3 UHDâ€™s ofÂ Calcarea carbÂ andÂ Sepia show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In case of R2 values the relationship in 3 UHDâ€™s is 8<202>1002 forÂ Calcarea carb, and 8>202<1002 for Sepia. R1 value position for X-ray is MT<8,32<14 and for Magnetis is MT<8<32<14. The relative position of R2 values for X-ray is 14<8<32
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