International Journal of High Dilution Research - ISSN 1982-6206 <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">IJHDR is a full submission free / open-access electronic journal (diamond type) specialized in the multidisciplinary High Dilution (HD) research field. Hosted by GIRI ( and supported by HRI (, HD Science (, and ECH (, IJHDR works in a double-blinded peer-reviewed system, counting on an international editorial board. From June 2022, the annual periodicity was set to a continuous flow system.</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">The journal is indexed at LILACS/BIREME/PAHO/WHO and EBSCO.</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">It is inserted at Qualis-CAPES, Latindex, OJS/PKP, Google Scholar, DOAJ, NSDL/NSF, Open J-Gate, JournalSeek, Scopus, Scimago, and BVS. The H index is 9 (2021).</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">IJHDR also counts on the services of ABEC and Crossref. Eventual plagiarism is checked by the iThenticate service.</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">IJHDR adopts the ethical standards described by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). </div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;"><strong>The average time between submission and publication is 6 - 8 months.</strong></div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;"> <p>Since August 2021, IJHDR has adopted the Creative-Commons license: <strong><span class="cc-license-title">Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International</span> <span class="cc-license-identifier">(CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).</span></strong></p> </div> en-US <p>&lt;a rel="license" href=""&gt;&lt;img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="" /&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br /&gt;This work is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license" href=""&gt;Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License&lt;/a&gt;.</p> [email protected] (Prof. Leoni Villano Bonamin) [email protected] (Leoni Villano Bonamin) Sun, 28 May 2023 15:14:02 +0000 OJS 60 A Review of the Literature on Usefulness of Homoeopathy in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry <p><strong>Background</strong>: Emotional and behavioural disorders are very common in childhood and adolescence. Homoeopathy is an alternative system of medicine which has a potential role in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP).</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To identify, summarize and disseminate research findings that could assess the role of Homoeopathy in CAP.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Two electronic databases PubMed and Google scholar are searched for publications on childhood behavioural disorders in peer-reviewed, indexed journals. Articles published on Homoeopathy and CAP in the past two decades i.e from 2000 to 2020 are included. An explicit systematic search strategy included web-based key word searches. The collected information has been collated, summarized, and the results are presented in tables and charts according to key themes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The research studies varied widely in all aspects such as design, conduct, intervention and outcome reporting. 38 eligible studies are identified on different clinical conditions in CAP. Individual sources of data are critically appraised and findings are discussed in terms of implications for gaps in research.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: There is limited yet convincing evidence for usefulness of Homoeopathy in CAP disorders such as Autism and ADHD. Our review emphasises the paucity of studies in other CAP disorders such as Intellectual disability, Learning disability, Conduct disorder, Childhood depression and Anxiety disorders etc. which is the domain of future research.</p> Deepthi Gilla, Sreeja, Sreelakshmy, Rajakumar Copyright (c) 2023 Deepthi Gilla, Sreeja, Sreelakshmy, Rajakumar Wed, 16 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Individualized Homoeopathic remedies in the Treatment of Molluscum Contagiosum: A Case Series <p><strong>Background and Objectives- </strong>Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common infectious dermatosis of viral origin predominantly seen in the paediatric age group and in immune-deficient individuals. Clinically, MC is characterised by the presence of firm, dome-shaped papules with a shiny and umbilicated surface. The treatment of MC is highly controversial as it is a self-limiting disease with the conventional treatments lacking sufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness and are known to cause pain, inconvenience, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation and scarring. Leaving the lesions untreated has been found to be associated with certain complications including inflammation, pruritus, dermatitis and secondary bacterial infection. Hence, there is a need to find gentler, holistic solutions for the treatment of MC. Homoeopathic treatments are based on the core principle of rapid, gentle and permanent cure achieved in a holistic manner. A case series of MC is hereby presented, to demonstrate the effectiveness of Individualized homoeopathic remedies in the treatment of MC.</p> <p><strong>Methods-</strong> Three cases of children with MC were treated with individualized Homeopathic medicines. Each case was followed up with clinical and photographic evidence and was reported according to the criteria set out in the HOM-CASE guidelines. The assessment of causal attribution of Homeopathic treatment effect was carried out using the Modified Naranjo Criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results-</strong> A marked improvement was observed in all three cases of MC with a complete disappearance of the eruptions without any recurrence. All cases improved within three months of treatment. The Modified Naranjo Criteria total score was +9/13 for each case, which indicates a positive causal attribution of homeopathy in relieving the symptoms of MC.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This case series suggests a significant role of individualized homeopathic medicines in the treatment of Molluscum contagiosum by a complete removal of external eruptions on skin through internal medication.</p> Vijay Krishna V Copyright (c) 2023 Vijay Krishna V Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Homoeopathy for Reducing Disruptive Behavioural Symptoms in Children with Conduct Disorder- <p><strong>Background</strong>: Conduct disorder (CD) and associated antisocial behaviour is one of the most common behavioural problems in children and young people that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. There is scarcity of literature for effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines in childhood psychiatric disorders such as CD.</p> <p><strong>Summary of cases:</strong> 10 children diagnosed as CD, five each from Child psychiatry OPD and Peripheral camp at a Children’s home were treated with individualized homoeopathic medicines. All the cases were assessed at baseline and successive visits with Conduct Disorder Rating Scale (CDRS)- Parent version and the results are summarized. There was a marked reduction of disruptive behaviour and improvement in the general condition of the children.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The analysis of 10 cases generates a preliminary evidence for usefulness of individualized homoeopathic medicines in the management of CDs. Studies with appropriate designs are indispensable to corroborate the evidence.</p> Deepthi Gilla, Moorthi, Sreeja, Sreelakshmy Copyright (c) 2023 Deepthi Gilla, Moorthi, Sreeja, Sreelakshmy Wed, 05 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of Homoeopathic Medicines in the Treatment of Chronic Urticaria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic urticaria is occurrence of wheals more than twice a week for a period of six weeks or longer. It is a vascular reaction of the skin characterised by the appearance of wheals, which are elevated whitish reddish plaques, generally surrounded by a red halo and associated with severe itching, stinging or burning sensations. Generally the lesions increase in frequency after adolescence, with highest incidence in persons in 3<sup>rd</sup> decade of their lives. Non- sedating anti-H1 antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment; when ineffective higher dosages are tried, though all are associated with a lot of side effects ranging from arrhythmias to osteoporosis when used for a long period.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aims and objectives of the present study were to understand the clinical presentation of CU and to assess the effects of constitutional homoeopathic remedies in the treatment of chronic urticaria based on the Urticaria Activity Score (UAS), and to study their effects on the quality of life of the patients before and after treatment, using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>It was a prospective non-randomised uncontrolled observational study; sample size was 30; case taking of all the patients was done based on standard case taking proforma, consent was taken from each patient,a questionnaire of 22 points was used to elicit significant aspects of the nature of urticaria, all the patients were prescribed medicines depending on individual case; follow-up was done every 30 days from first prescription. At each visit, scoring of clinical symptoms was done with the help of UAS. Prognosis was made by comparing the different scores at each visit. Lastly, quality of life assessment was done before and after treatment using DLQI.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>According to severity based on the Urticaria Activity Score, before treatment 10% patients were in mild category, 60% patients in moderate category and 30% in severe category. After treatment, 63.33% patients were in mild category and 36.67% in moderate category. The t-value was 10.56(p=0.001) for UAS. Based on DLQI, 6.67% were in large effect group, 63.33% in moderate effect group, 26.67% in small effect group and 3.33% in no effect group.</p> <ul> <li><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong>Chronic Urticaria, Homoeopathic treatment, Urticaria Activity Score (UAS), Dermatology Life Quality Index(DLQI)</li> <li>Conflict of interest: None</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> Niharika Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 Niharika Gupta Sun, 21 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Zebrafish as an evolving model in Homoeopathy: A Scoping Review <p><strong>Background:</strong> The scientific community has used the Zebrafish (<em>Danio rerio</em>) model significantly more often which adheres to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) philosophy as demanded by numerous national and international regulatory agencies. Thus, by substituting Zebrafish for mammals in research, it is possible to decrease the use of those animals and address issues with their welfare.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Data was collected from various databases such as <em>Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, PubMed, Research gate, and Google Scholar, </em>to identify preclinical studies examining the effects of Homoeopathic formulations on the variance of diseases in Zebrafish. The 13 qualified manuscripts were included in the full-text analysis after the identified publications were reviewed in accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A systematic search of the databases retrieved 10 studies screened for eligibility after duplicates were removed. A total of 10 full-text articles were assessed with a total of 09 meeting the inclusion criteria and included in the scoping review.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Zebrafish revealed to be an ideal model to explore studies on toxicity, genetics, behavior and bone diseases. Additionally, researchers can use Zebrafish to discover novel therapies and preventive measures for a range of human ailments.</p> Varsha Ghate, Monica Khachane, Anupam Mukherjee, Arulmozhi S Copyright (c) 2023 Varsha Ghate, Monica Khachane, Anupam Mukherjee, Arulmozhi S Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of change in research attitude among Under-graduate students in a homoeopathic medical college- An Interventional Study <p>Building skills towards scientific reasoning and critical thinking among the medical students is an integral part of the profession. However, less participation and disinterest towards research has been observed in undergraduate homoeopathic students. So, to assess the change in attitude towards research through a research orientation training, this study was conducted. A study material devised on the concepts of research methodology and significance of research; termed as the Self-developed Research Attitude Training (SRAT), was used. The SRAT training was carried out for 3 days in 2021 and 2022 for the students of 2<sup>nd</sup> BHMS, 3<sup>rd</sup> BHMS and 4<sup>th</sup> BHMS. Research Aptitude Questionnaire (RAQ) were developed for the assessment and the students were asked to fill &nbsp;the specific set of RAQ questionnaires pre-SRAT and post-SRAT. The change in mean scores of RAQ in all the batches was found to be statistically significant (P&lt;0.001).It is evident that the lack of orientation and motivation in students towards research can be improved through regular and apt methods in the classrooms at all the academic levels.</p> Dr. Priya Singh, Dr. Kruiti Saraswat, Dr. Pratibha Pathak, Dr. Shipra Singh, Dr. Kathika Chattopadhyay, Dr. C.P. Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Priya Singh, Dr. Kruiti Saraswat, Dr. Pratibha Pathak, Dr. Shipra Singh, Dr. Kathika Chattopadhyay, Dr. C.P. Sharma Thu, 16 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Remnants of Dead Substance: The Structural Study of Ultra-High Diluted Compounds <p><strong>Background</strong> In recent centuries, ultra-high diluted compounds have shown some effect, which has always been doubted and disbelieved due to the high dilution. Articles on UHD have published various effects of these substances on living organisms (humans, plants, animals and bacteria). But so far nothing has been found visible to differentiate the structure of these substances themselves from placebo. This research, unlike other published articles, is about the nature and structure of UHDs themselves and has been able to investigate and reveal structural differences between UHDs and of course placebo and presented different, new, and perplexing chemical results on the structure of UHDs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> To prepare eleven selected samples, commercial UHDs from various plant, animal, mineral, chemical and nosode resources were used in a dilution of ´10<sup>-6</sup>. The experiments (90) were designed using the Design Expert 7.0.0 based on the Central Composite Design (CCD) statistical algorithm related to four quantitative factors of time, dilution, light intensity and temperature and a qualitative factor of UHD type. The formed things were selected and were imagined using Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> The formation of substances which gradually start taking shapes appears in the solutions. EOMs formed some things in different size, shapes, and suspended in water are observable by naked eyes. They are in tubular and layered forms which are solidified and strong with some curvatures and bending. We’ve called these substances Essential Original Matter (EOM). These EOMs are unique, distinct and repeatable and they have special structural feature that is created in every individual type of UHDs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> The production of somethings in UHD’s solution (we called in EOMs) is reported for the first time. Results prove that UHDs are distinct from placebo in addition to the effects shown in the past and in other articles. These materials have different and unique structure. According to the current laws of chemistry, no traces of above materials are expected to be seen in these types of solutions.&nbsp; Based on these results, it can be suggested that the Avogadro hypothesis needs to be re-examined and revised.</p> Fariba Rahimi, Saba Hosseinian, Fateme Mirzajani; Meraj Rahimi Copyright (c) 2023 Fariba Rahimi, Saba Hosseinian, Fateme Mirzajani; Meraj Rahimi Wed, 05 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Kali carbonicum 6cH controls Malassezia pachydermatis growth in vitro <p>External otitis caused by <em>Malassezia pachydermatis </em>is a common disease in the veterinary practice routine, whose treatment has been challenging due to the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Thus, Homeopathy is seen as a possible alternative to control the infection. To screen potential medicines to be used in a non-individualized clinical homeopathy approach, a series of <em>in vitro</em> assays were performed, in which a suspension of <em>M. pachydermatis</em> colonies in 0.5 McFarland scale was diluted 1:1000 in sterile saline solution, and 10 µL of pre-selected homeopathic medicines was added. <em>Sulphur</em> 6cH, <em>Dolichos pruriens</em> 6cH, and <em>Kali carbonicum</em> 6cH were chosen from a pilot study, and the last potency was prepared in pure, sterile water. The controls were pure, sterile water and succussed pure, sterile water. An amount of 50 µL of each suspension has seemed in plates containing Sabouraud dextrose agar medium, with or without 1% Tween 80, for counting of colony-forming units (CFU) and cytomorphological analysis of <em>M. pachydermatis</em> samples taken from the same colonies. The analysis was made using Image J 1.53 by manually counting quiescent and germinative forms. <em>Kali carbonicum</em> 6cH treatment decreased the germinative/quiescent ratio in relation to the controls, independent of Tween 80 presence in the medium. The UFC counting, however, did not show statistically significant differences among groups, probably by the lack of cytotoxicity against the yeasts. In conclusion, <em>Kali carbonicum</em> 6cH was considered a promising medicine to be tested in clinical conditions, probably due to its capacity to control yeast growth without creating a selective pressure able to induce resistance mechanisms.</p> Julia Roriz de Oliveira, Thalia Adriane R Gonçalves, Lorena Campos de Assis, Eliana Aparecida Perrone, Selene Dall´Acqua; Leoni Bonamin Copyright (c) 2023 Julia Roriz de Oliveira, Thalia Adriane R Gonçalves, Lorena Campos de Assis, Eliana Aparecida Perrone, Selene Dall´Acqua; Leoni Bonamin Sun, 05 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Placebo a wizard in scientific world of homoeopathy Aditya Dilipkumar Patil Copyright (c) 2023 Aditya Dilipkumar Patil Wed, 01 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000