Giardia nosode 30cH in the treatment of howler monkey (Alouatta guariba) with giardiasis in captivity in Brazil


  • Cideli de Paula Coelho
  • Thaís Sanches São Paulo's Wildlife Division
  • Mayra Frediani Frediani São Paulo's Wildlife Division
  • Talita Risério São Paulo's Wildlife Division
  • Francisco Conde São Paulo's Wildlife Division
  • Sonia Pinheiro HD Science



nosode, primate, parasitism


The red howler monkey (Alouatta guariba) is an endemic primate of the Atlantic Forest, classified as vulnerable. They're susceptible to giardiasis, impacting human health and Alouatta genus conservation. Studies report parasite occurrence in wild and captive individuals. While asymptomatic infections are common in captivity, immunosuppression can lead to severe cases. São Paulo's Wildlife Division maintains a large captive population. To assess Giardia duodenalis presence, fecal samples were collected from 43 individuals in 17 enclosures over three days, totaling 153 examinations. Animals were asymptomatic, with some groups showing loose stools. Two processing methods (direct and Sheather) were used, followed by quantitative evaluation based on cysts per slide. Only one enclosure tested negative; others were rare (4), slight (8), or moderate (4). Despite being asymptomatic, treatment was chosen to prevent positive animals from spreading infection. Allopathic treatment was impractical due to enclosure size; homeopathic Giardia 30cH nosode was given via water and food for 15 days to 16 positive enclosures. Afterward, 144 fecal samples were reanalyzed over three days. Seven enclosures were negative, 8 were rare, one was slight, none were moderate. All had firm feces. Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed significant treatment (p=0.004). Giardia 30cH nosode reduced parasitism, environmental contamination, with easy administration and no stress/adverse effects.




How to Cite

Coelho, C. de P., Sanches, T., Frediani, M. F., Risério, T., Conde, F., & Pinheiro, S. (2023). Giardia nosode 30cH in the treatment of howler monkey (Alouatta guariba) with giardiasis in captivity in Brazil. International Journal of High Dilution Research - ISSN 1982-6206, 22(2), 67–68.

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